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England[ edit ] In England, underwriting agreement 8 kg hide was an area of land sufficient to support one family.
It was a measurement of value and was the basis for the land-tax that became known as Danegeld. Although the term Danegeld is generally held to have been the name of the tribute payments made to the Vikings, prior to the Norman Conquest, the payments were actually referred to as gafol.
Heregeld was abolished by Edward the Confessor in It was actually the Norman administration who referred to the tax as Danegeld.
They were once more bought off, and the amount of silver paid impressed the Danes with the idea that it was more profitable to extort payments from the English than to take whatever booty they could plunder. This kind of extorted tribute was not unique to England: In fact, the Primary Chronicle relates that the regions paying protection money extended east towards Moscowuntil the Finnish and Slavic tribes rebelled and drove the Varangians overseas.
Similarly, the Sami peoples were frequently forced to pay tribute in the form of pelts. A similar procedure also existed in Iberiawhere the contemporary Christian states were largely supported on tribute gold from the taifa kingdoms. Everywhere the tax was farmed collected by local sheriffs.
Records of assessment and income pre-date the Norman conquest, indicating a system which James Campbell describes as "old, but not unchanging". Green asserts that the national system of land taxation developed to raise the Danegeld was the first to reappear in Western Europe since the collapse of the Western Roman Empire.
He and his successors levied the geld more frequently than the Anglo-Saxon kings, and at higher rates; the six-shilling geld of is infamous, and the geld in Ely offor example, was double its normal rate. That year, according to the chronicle of John of Worcester the king promised to suspend the danegeld for seven years, a promise renewed by Stephen at his coronation but which was afterwards broken.
Henry II revived the danegeld in —, but — marks the last year the danegeld was recorded on a pipe rolland the tax fell into disuse.
Certainly they were paid off on more than one occasion, and such payouts may have included money besides other valuablesbut the imposition of a tax on the people to pay either a stipend or a tribute is not recorded in the sources, although it is possible that some monies were raised this way.
It is more likely that purely local danegeld were raised in times of emergency. Dani partem inferioris Galliae quam Brittones incolunt adeuntes, ter cum eisdem bellantes, superant; Nomenogiusque victus cum suis fugit, dein [per] legatos muneribus a suis eos sedibus amovit.
Thrice doing battle with the same, they overcame them.
The vanquished Nominoe fled with his own, then through messengers bearing gifts removed the same Danes from their settlements. In that year Salomon, King of Brittanyput an end to some pagan raids by payment of five hundred heads of cattle.
According to a record in the cartulary of Redon Abbeythe bishop Courantgenus was ransomed from Viking captivity in In the monks of Redon had to ransom the count, Pascwetfrom a similar captivity by handing over a chalice and a patenweighing together sixty-seven solidi in gold.
Sometime later Pascwet managed to redeem the sacred vessels from the pagans, and this payment too may have been raised as a sort of danegeld. The victorious Danes then demanded a large tribute from the conquered.
Soon after, a report was sent to Charlemagnethen at Aachen contemplating a campaign against the Danish king, Godfredstating that the Frisians had already collected through taxation and paid a sum of one hundred pounds of silver.
In some Northmen, having burnt Antwerp and the marketplace at Wintlaagreed to leave on the payment of some tribute, the amount of which the Annales Fuldenses do not specify.We just discussed how to negotiate debts successfully on our own, but that doesn’t close the deal plombier-nemours.comating debt and paying the new agreement requires a settlement letter.
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