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The lead up to the war began with the Iraqi invasion of Kuwait in August which was met with immediate economic sanctions by the United Nations against Iraq.
Hostilities commenced in Januaryresulting in a decisive victory for the coalition forces, which drove Iraqi forces out of Kuwait with minimal coalition deaths. The main battles were aerial and ground combat within Iraq, Kuwait and bordering areas of Saudi Arabia.
Iraq hoped to repay its debts by raising the price of oil through OPEC oil production cuts, but instead, Kuwait increased production, lowering prices, in an attempt to leverage a better resolution of their border dispute.
In addition, greatly antagonizing Iraq, Kuwait had taken advantage of the Iran-Iraq War and had begun illegal slant drilling for oil into Iraqi reserves, and had built military outposts on Iraqi soil near Kuwait.
Furthermore, Iraq charged that it had performed a collective service for all Arabs by acting as a buffer against Iran and that therefore Kuwait and Saudi Arabia should negotiate or cancel Iraq's war debts.
Hussein's primary two-fold justification blended the assertion of Kuwaiti territory being an Iraqi province arbitrarily cut off by imperialism, and the use of annexation as retaliation for "economic warfare" Kuwait had waged through slant drilling into Iraq's oil supplies while under Iraqi protection.
The war with Iran had also seen the destruction of almost all of Iraq's port facilities on the Persian Gulf cutting off Iraq's main trade outlet. Many in Iraq, expecting a resumption of war with Iran in the future, felt that Iraq security could only be guaranteed by controlling more of the Gulf Persian gulf war, including more secure ports.
Kuwait thus made a tempting target. Ideologically, the invasion of Kuwait was justified through calls to Arab nationalism. Kuwait was described as a natural part of Iraq carved off by British imperialism. The annexation of Kuwait was described as a step on the way to greater Arab union.
Other reasons were given as well. Iraqi president Saddam Hussein presented it as a way to restore the empire of Babylon in addition to the Arab nationalist rhetoric.
The invasion was also closely tied to other events in the Middle East. The First Intifada by the Palestinians was raging, and most Arab states, including Kuwait, Saudi Arabia and Egypt, were dependent on western alliances.
Saddam thus presented himself as the one Arab statesman willing to stand up to Israel and the U. During the Iran-Iraq war, U. Following the war, however, there were moves within the United States Congress to isolate Iraq diplomatically and economically over concerns about human rights violations, its dramatic military build-up, and hostility to Israel.
Opposition to the regime in Iraq was thus shared by many on the left-wing as well as some neoconservatives, most prominently Paul Wolfowitz. Bush or the government" and that Bush would veto any move toward sanctions against Iraq.
From the Iraqi transcript of the meeting, as published in Sifry et al, In late July,as negotiations between Iraq and Kuwait stalled, Iraq massed troops on Kuwait's borders and summoned American ambassador April Glaspie for an unanticipated meeting with Iraqi President Saddam Hussein.
In that meeting, Saddam outlined his grievances against Kuwait, while promising that he would not invade Kuwait before one more round of negotiations. Although Glaspie expressed concern over the troop buildup, some people perceived her answers as giving tacit approval for an invasion, by saying that the US "[has] no opinion on the Arab-Arab conflicts, like your border disagreement with Kuwait" from the Iraqi transcript of the meeting, as published in Sifry.
To emphasize this point, she also said at the meeting, "James Baker has directed our official spokesmen to emphasize this instruction. However, Saddam's expectations may have been preoccupied by the perception that the US just at this time was approving the reunification of Germany, another act that he considered to be nothing more than the nullification of an artificial, internal border.
At the break of dawn on August 2,Iraqi troops crossed the Kuwaiti border with armor and infantry, occupying strategic posts throughout the country, including the Emir's palace.
Troops looted medical and food supplies, detained thousands of civilians and took over the media. Iraq detained thousands of Western visitors as hostages and later attempted to use them as bargaining chips.
Hussein then installed a new Iraqi provincial governor, described as "liberation" from the Kuwaiti Emir; this was largely dismissed as war propaganda. Within hours of the initial invasion, the Kuwaiti and United States of America delegations requested a meeting of the UN Security Council, which passed Resolutioncondemning the invasion and demanding a withdrawal of Iraqi troops.
On August 3, the Arab League passed its own resolution condemning the invasion and demanding a withdrawal of Iraqi troops. The Arab League resolution also called for a solution to the conflict from within the Arab League, and warned against foreign intervention.
The decision by the west to repel the Iraqi invasion had as much to do with preventing an Iraqi invasion of Saudi Arabia, a nation of far more importance to the world than Kuwait. The rapid success of the Iraqi army against Kuwait had brought Iraq's army within easy striking distance of the Hama oil fields, Saudi Arabia's most valuable oil fields.
Iraqi control of these fields as well as Kuwait and Iraqi reserves would have given it an unprecedented monopoly in the vital commodity. Saudi Arabia could put up little more resistance than Kuwait and the entire world believed the temptation for Saddam to further advance his ambitions would prove too great.
The entire world — especially the oil hungry states of the United States, Europe and Japan — saw such an oil monopoly as very dangerous. Iraq had a number of grievances with Saudi Arabia.The First Persian Gulf War, also known as the Gulf War, Jan.–Feb., , was an armed conflict between Iraq and a coalition of 39 nations including the United States, Britain, Egypt, France, and Saudi Arabia 28 nations contributed troops.
It was a result of Iraq's invasion of Kuwait on Aug. 2, Iraq then annexed Kuwait, which it had long. Noun 1. Persian Gulf War - a war fought between Iraq and a coalition led by the United States that freed Kuwait from Iraqi invaders; Operation Desert Storm - the United States and its allies defeated Iraq in a ground war that lasted hours () Want to thank TFD for its existence.
Persian Gulf War, also called Gulf War, (–91), international conflict that was triggered by Iraq’s invasion of Kuwait on August 2, Iraq’s leader, Saddam Hussein, ordered the invasion and occupation of Kuwait with the apparent aim of acquiring that nation’s large oil reserves, canceling a large debt Iraq owed Kuwait, and expanding Iraqi power in the region.
The 3rd Marine Aircraft Wing in Desert Shield and Desert Storm: U.S. Marines in the Persian Gulf, - Defense of Eastern Saudi Arabia and Bahrain, CentCom, SCUDs, Khafji, Al Jaber, Heliborne.
The First Persian Gulf War, also known as the Gulf War, Jan.–Feb., , was an armed conflict between Iraq and a coalition of 39 nations including the United States, Britain, Egypt, France, and Saudi Arabia 28 nations contributed troops.
It was a result of Iraq's invasion of Kuwait on Aug. 2, Iraq then annexed Kuwait, which it had long. Sep 15, · Read CNN's Fast Facts about the Persian Gulf War, an international conflict codenamed Operation Desert Shield and Operation Desert Storm.