What is being done to reduce NO2 pollution? What is NO2 and how does it get in the air?
References Description Oxides of nitrogen are a mixture of gases that are composed of nitrogen and oxygen. Two of the most toxicologically significant compounds are nitric oxide NO and nitrogen dioxide NO2. Other gases belonging to this group are nitrogen monoxide or nitrous oxide, N2Oand nitrogen pentoxide NO5.
Nitrogen dioxide is produced for the manufacture of nitric acid. Most nitric acid is used in the manufacture of fertilisers, while some is used in the production of explosives for both military and mining uses.
Substance details Substance name: Oxides of nitrogen CASR number: Australia's Oxides of Nitrogen emission report Description Low levels of oxides of nitrogen can irritate eyes, nose, throat and lungs, possibly leading to coughing, shortness of breath, tiredness and nausea.
Exposure can also result in a build up of fluid in the lungs for days after exposure. Breathing high levels of oxides of nitrogen can cause rapid burning, spasms and swelling of tissues in the throat and upper respiratory tract, reduced oxygenation of tissues, a build up of fluid in the lungs, and maybe even death.
Skin or eye contact with high concentrations of oxides of nitrogen gases or nitrogen dioxide liquid will likely lead to serious burns. Entering the body Oxides of nitrogen may be inhaled or absorbed through the skin. Exposure Most people are exposed to oxides of nitrogen by breathing in polluted air.
People who live near combustion sources such as coal burning power plants or areas of high motor vehicle usage, or live in households that burn a lot of wood or use kerosene heaters or gas stoves may be exposed to higher levels of nitrogen oxides. Workers employed in facilities that use welding materials, produce nitric acid or certain explosives, may inhale oxides of nitrogen during their work.
Nitrogen dioxide and nitric oxide are found in tobacco smoke. Health guidelines Workplace exposure: Currently, the eight-hour time weighted average TWA exposure limits are 31 milligrams of nitric oxide NO per cubic metre of air, 45 milligrams of nitrous oxide N2O per cubic metre of air and 5.
Australian drinking water guidelines: Based on health considerations, the concentration of nitrates should not exceed 50 milligrams per litre of drinking water for bottle-fed infants up to 3 months of age, up to milligrams per litre of drinking water for adults and children over 3 months of age.
Where a water supply has between 50 and milligrams of nitrate per litre of drinking water, active measures are required to ensure that those caring for infants are aware of the need to use alternative water sources in making up bottle feeds for infants under 3 months of age.
Based on health considerations, the concentration of nitrites should not exceed 3 milligrams per litre of drinking water.
Description Excessive levels of the oxides of nitrogen, particularly nitrogen dioxide NO2can cause death in plants and roots and damage the leaves of many agricultural crops.
Excessive levels increase the acidity of rain lower the pHand thus lower the pH of surface and ground waters and soil. The lowered pH can have harmful effects, possibly even death, on a variety of biological systems.
Entering the environment Oxides of nitrogen are part of the biogeochemical cycling of nitrogen, and are found in air, soil and water. In the atmosphere, the oxides of nitrogen are rapidly equilibrated to nitrogen dioxide NO2which eventually forms acid rain.
In the stratosphere, oxides of nitrogen play a crucial role in maintaining the levels of ozone. Ozone is formed through the photochemical reaction between nitrogen dioxide and oxygen. Where it ends up Oxides of nitrogen are rapidly broken down by reacting with other substances found in the air.
Nitrogen dioxide can form nitric acid in sunlight, and is a major constituent of acid rain, tropospheric ozone and smog. Nitrogen oxides react in the soil and the water to nitric acid.
Environmental guidelines The following ambient air quality standards were established for nitrogen dioxide in Averaging period of 1 hour, a maximum of 0. Averaging period of 1 year, a maximum of 0. Industry sources Industrial sources of oxides of nitrogen are electricity supply, mining, oil and gas extraction, manufacturing industries and petroleum manufacturing.The Ho Research Group at the National University of Singapore, led by Prof.
Ho Ghim Wei, aims to create new nanomaterials for energy applications. In atmospheric chemistry, NO x is a generic term for the nitrogen oxides that are most relevant for air pollution, namely nitric oxide (NO) and nitrogen dioxide (NO 2). These gases contribute to the formation of smog and acid rain, as well as affecting tropospheric ozone..
NO x gases are usually produced from the reaction among nitrogen and oxygen during combustion of fuels, such as. • Metallic and Insulating Oxide Interfaces Controlled by Electronic Correlations (See full text) • Engineering atomic interfaces for new electronics • Post-doc Seung-Hyub Baek presented with prestigious research awards (MRS silver award) (Turnbull award).
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An extensive and wide-ranging literature about the polymorphs of titanium dioxide (TiO 2) has accumulated during the last few decades, providing a very large resource of data on its properties, functionality and many present and potential industrial plombier-nemours.com review focuses on the structural, kinetic, thermodynamic and electrical properties of TiO 2 from the viewpoint of the relationship.
Oxides Research 1. Assess evidence, which indicates increases in atmospheric concentration of oxides of sulfur and nitrogen. Thorough collection of data, surveys, and tests from the 's indicate a rising trend in atmospheric concentrations of oxides of sulfur and nitrogen.