Ist 301

Would you lie about this: The use of fingers or any phallic objects in this case would also count.

Ist 301

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Easter sequence c ] the origin of which can be traced back to Wipo of Burgundy c. During the ensuing centuries before the Reformation, additional verses up to a total of 3 were gradually added. This Leise then underwent a substantial transformation by Martin Luther with the help of Ist 301 Walter.

In this version, the chorale, as it is known today, first appeared in print in an edition by Joseph Klug, Wittenberg, It is possible to track many of Ist 301 stages between the earliest and later stages of development and transformation: In this 14th-century manuscriptthere is this oldest version of what will eventually become Ist 301 1st verse of Christ ist erstanden complete with neumes to indicate how the text should be sung.

The German text is repeated in Roman type below to aid in deciphering the text. Fromhere is a two-part setting of Christ ist erstanden in recognizable musical notation.

The popularity of Christ ist erstanden is documented by its appearance in 3 separate settings in the Glogauer Liederbuch c which contains primarily secular settings of popular compositions.

One of these settings appears with a different melody and a slightly changed title as well: Here is the complete version of the melody: A much abbreviated and changed shorter version with a slightly different title also appears in this collection: Remarkably, the same collection contains a Latin version of the German Leise as a quasi backformation of the original Wipo version: For the musical notation and text of the Easter sequence on which Christ ist erstanden is based, see: Easter sequence c A rough translation of the Latin yields the following: The lamb which saves the sheep: Christ innocently has brought sinners to be reconciled with the Father.

Death and life were engaged in a strangely wild contest with each other: I saw the splendor of the Arisen One: My hope, Christ, has arisen and goes ahead of you to Galilee. Have mercy upon us, victorious ruler! The Ambrosian hymns were originally intended to be sung by the congregation, and congregational refrains were added to a number of liturgical chants.

From the 6th century liturgical singing became the preserve of the cantor and choir. Such vernacular hymnody was particularly strong in German-speaking regions. Between the 9th century and over German vernacular hymns are known to have been written. The hymn of Hussite Bohemia, the English medieval carol and the Italian lauda are comparable repertories of this period.

From the 12th century the principal forms of vernacular singing that developed into the Reformation chorale were German translations of Latin chant, the Leise German spiritual song and the cantio Latin spiritual song.

Of all the forms of Gregorian chant, medieval translators understandably favoured the Ambrosian hymn of the monastic Offices with its short strophes, concise and straightforward language and essentially syllabic melodic style. These qualities later made it the most significant Gregorian source for the Protestant chorale writers.

Ist 301

Two of the most important German translators of the period, the Monk of Salzburg and Heinrich Laufenberg, set important precedents for Reformation poets with their choice of hymns as well as their translations.

Late medieval hymn translations were rarely provided with musical notation, but the fact that they kept the original metrical schemes suggests that they were meant to be sung to the original melodies; the presence of rubrics suggests that they may have been used occasionally in some forms of liturgical worship.

Apart from the hymns, the chants for the Office did not as a group stimulate many translations, but individual antiphons such as Media vita in morte sumus, formerly attributed to Notker Balbulus, and the 11th-century Pentecost antiphon Veni Sancte Spiritus existed in the German versions Mitten wir im Leben sind and Komm, heiliger Geist, Herr Gott from at least the early 15th century.

The chants for the Mass having non-strophic texts and relatively intricate melodies did not encourage translation in the pre-Reformation period, particularly since they remained the exclusive province of the clergy and choir.

Of the Propers only the sequence assumed considerable, indeed outstanding, importance for the later history of the chorale as the origin of the Leise. During the late Middle Ages the practice developed of occasionally permitting the congregation to sing German versions of the sequence itself by this time a metrical, strophic form during the regular service at the principal feasts of the church year, immediately after the clergy and choir had performed the Latin original.

Generally a Leise strophe retained the same melody throughout the centuries while the refrain continually received new settings, invariably of the simplest melodic material.

Since the Leise shares stylistic and liturgical elements with the litany, the Kyrie, the hymn, the sequence and the folksong, its origins and development have been a matter of controversy. The picture is complicated by the fact that whereas there was an outburst of production of Leise texts between the 12th century and the early 14th, melodies for them are extant only from the 15th century.a private network using internet technologies opened to select external entities for purposes of communication-purpose is to interconnect businesses with its suppliers/customers/business partners -but this is disappearing.

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Dieser Blogpost ist der letzte von insgesamt fünf Teilen, die in den vergangenen Wochen veröffentlicht werden. Grundlage für die Beiträge ist ein Whitepaper, welches ich als Nachlese geschrieben habe zu meinem Vortrag auf der CDC , den ich zusammen mit Petra Lipp gehalten habe.

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