There are several factors which directly or indirectly influence the growth and development of an organism. There are as follows: Heredity is a biological process through which the transmission of physical and social characteristics takes place from parents to off-springs.
This means that we need to integrate multidomain interventions when attempting to influence the course of development. Target refers to the fact that intervention strategies need to be tailored for different cultural contexts, for different risk conditions, and for different outcomes rather than assuming that a given intervention will equally influence all outcomes for all individuals under all circumstances.
Across time refers to the need for interventions to reoccur over time to maximize the chances of long-term gains. Integrate To the extent that an outcome is determined by multiple influences, intervention strategies should also encompass multiple influences.
The critical question is which influences from which domains to include in the intervention. In an ideal sense, we would first determine what domains were relevant and within each domain what specific factors were most salient for the outcomes targeted.
We would then do a survey of our population to determine which specific factors from each critical domain were lacking or were in excess, and which of those that were lacking or were in excess might most easily be manipulated to promote the desired gains. Such a strategy, although theoretically correct, is far too complex to be of use in most intervention situations in less developed countries.
An alternative easier strategy that allows us to integrate across multiple influences involves building upon existing covariances among developmental influences. We are far more likely to get maximal and lasting gains if we build on existing covariances than if we ignore the covariance among developmental influences.
Let us take the covariance between nutritional deficit and inadequate psychosocial stimulation as an example. Available evidence documents that we can improve the health status of young children living in populations at risk for zinc deficiency by zinc supplementation [, ].
Functional consequences of better child health include more regular school attendance and better attention to the environment . As shown in figure 4, zinc supplementation promotes better health, and better health status in turn makes young children more responsive to the environment.
To the extent that micro-nutrient deficits covary with inadequate psychosocial rearing conditions [63,95], it would be both logical and important to build on existing covariation by combining zinc supplementation with a programme of psychosocial stimulation designed to promote cognitive performance, since supplemented children will be more likely to be receptive to such stimulation than unsupplemented children.
As has been shown in Asia , Africa , and the Caribbean , relatively low-cost, culturally appropriate psychosocial stimulation programmes can be provided in the context of other interventions designed to reduce the impact of morbidity or malnutrition .
This may be particularly true if we utilize available technology, such as television, which is often found even in the poorest villages, as a mechanism for delivering appropriate psychosocial stimulation to large numbers of children .
Integrated interventions based on covarying developmental influences will allow us to influence multiple aspects of development in a manner that is both cost effective and likely to have long-term developmental benefits. Zinc, health, and psychosocial stimulation Target Targeting interventions involves issues such as what outcome we are targeting and whom we are targeting.
In regard to the former question, all too often our intervention efforts are directed towards facilitating performance on a specific cognitive or behavioural measure e.
Rather than targeting for performance on available and commonly used behavioural or developmental measures, we should target three domains of competence, even when the measurement of gains in these domains is more difficult.
First, it is important to target those individual and behavioural characteristics that allow the individual to function adequately in his or her culture.Mar 25, · Some of the main factors that influence a child's development are his family, where he lives, and socio-economic status.
These factors often cross over and blend as they are often plombier-nemours.coms: Culture, therefore, influences the manner we learn, live and behave. Because of this, many theorists believe that culture is an important shaper of our personality.
One of the general assumptions asserting the effect of culture to personality is that people who are born and bred in the same culture share common personality traits. Apr 07, · Environmental influences during development and their later consequences for health and disease: implications for the interpretation of empirical studies Peter D Gluckman, 1 Mark A Hanson, 2 Hamish G Spencer, 3 and Patrick Bateson 4, *.
more about the influence of music on the development of children. Others focus on how formal music training impacts various aspects of cognitive development such as perception, memory, There is a need to study and test children's interest in music and its influences on the. It is true that we are all essentially the same due to our common human nature, but other aspects of who we are certainly are impacted, particularly as children, by our cultures.
Nancy Gonzales and Kenneth Dodge, researchers of adolescents and authors of “Family and Peer Influences on Adolescent Behavior and Risk-Taking,” state that family culture is the driving force behind the development of children’s moral viewpoints.