Jeanne d'Arc of China:
On May 4, U. Secretary of Defense Donald H. Rumsfeld, in a formulation that would be used over and over again by U. In a nationally televised address on May 24, President George W. Bush spoke of "disgraceful conduct by a few American troops who dishonored our country and disregarded our values.
Comparable -- and, indeed, more extreme -- cases of torture and inhuman treatment have been extensively documented by the International Committee of the Red Cross and by journalists at numerous locations in Iraq outside Abu Ghraib. This pattern of abuse did not result from the acts of individual soldiers who broke the rules.
It resulted from decisions made by the Bush administration to bend, ignore, or cast rules aside. Administration policies created the climate for Abu Ghraib in three fundamental ways.
Memorandum Letter Sample – How to Write a Memo. A memorandum letter or simply known as memo is a letter containing a statement that is usually written by higher authorities of an organization for the purpose of sharing information. Template for Military letter of recommendation. To write your military letter of recommendation, put it on your organization letter head. If you don't have it, ask an administrative assistant, desk clerk, staff duty or someone in your higher command's office for an . US ARMY COMMAND AND GENERAL STAFF COLLEGE CGSOC Common Core F Managing Army Change F Force Management Discussion Paper Purpose This assessment measures your understanding of the ideas and concepts presented in the F lessons.
First, in the aftermath of the September 11 attacks on the United States, the Bush administration seemingly determined that winning the war on terror required that the United States circumvent international law.
Senior administration lawyers in a series of internal memos argued over the objections of career military and State Department counsel that the new war against terrorism rendered "obsolete" long-standing legal restrictions on the treatment and interrogation of detainees.
The administration effectively sought to re-write the Geneva Conventions of to eviscerate many of their most important protections.
These include the rights of all detainees in an armed conflict to be free from humiliating and degrading treatment, as well as from torture and other forms of coercive interrogation. The Pentagon and the Justice Department developed the breathtaking legal argument that the president, as commander-in-chief of the armed forces, was not bound by U.
The United States began to create offshore, off-limits, prisons such as Guantnamo Bay, Cuba, maintained other detainees in "undisclosed locations," and sent terrorism suspects without legal process to countries where information was beaten out of them.
White House legal counsel Alberto Gonzales, while suggesting that the Geneva Conventions be circumvented, did convey to President Bush the worries of military leaders that these policies might "undermine U.
In Maya member of the th Military Police Company told the New York Times that the labeling of prisoners in Afghanistan as "enemy combatants" not subject to the Geneva Conventions contributed to their abuse.
These methods included holding detainees in painful stress positions, depriving them of sleep and light for prolonged periods, exposing them to extremes of heat, cold, noise and light, hooding, and depriving them of all clothing.
News reports describe a case where U. These techniques, familiar to victims of torture in many of the world's most repressive dictatorships, are forbidden by prohibitions against torture and other cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment not only by the Geneva Conventions, but by other international instruments to which the U.
It is not yet clear which techniques of ill-treatment or torture were formally approved at which levels of the U. What is clear is that they were used systematically both in Afghanistan and then in Iraq, and that they were also used on some scale at Guantnamo.
It is also clear that the purpose of these techniques is to inflict pain, suffering and severe humiliation on detainees.
Once that purpose was legitimized by military and intelligence officials, it is not surprising that ordinary soldiers came to believe that even more extreme forms of abuse were acceptable.
The brazenness with which some soldiers conducted themselves at Abu Ghraib, snapping photographs and flashing the "thumbs-up" sign as they abused prisoners, confirms that they felt they had nothing to hide from their superiors.
Third, until the publication of the Abu Ghraib photographs forced action, Bush administration officials took at best a "see no evil, hear no evil" approach to all reports of detainee mistreatment. From the earliest days of the war in Afghanistan and the occupation of Iraq, the U.
Yet high-level pledges of humane treatment were never implemented with specific orders or guidelines to forbid coercive methods of interrogation.
Investigations of deaths in custody languished; soldiers and intelligence personnel accused of abuse, including all cases involving the killing of detainees, escaped judicial punishment. When, in the midst of the worst abuses, the International Committee of the Red Cross complained to Coalition forces, Army officials apparently responded by trying to curtail the ICRC's access.
Concern for the basic rights of persons taken into custody in Afghanistan and Iraq did not factor into the Bush administration's agenda.
The administration largely dismissed expressions of concern for their treatment, from both within the government and without. This, too, sent a message to those dealing with detainees in the field about the priorities of those in command. The severest abuses at Abu Ghraib occurred in the immediate aftermath of a decision by Secretary Rumsfeld to step up the hunt for "actionable intelligence" among Iraqi prisoners.memorandum for the record from: commander in chief, u.s.
pacific fleet subj: court of inquiry into the circumstances surrounding the collision between uss . DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY UNIT NAME UNIT ADDRESS CITY STATE, ZIP CODE (Office Symbol) (Date) MEMORANDUM FOR Commander, U.S. Army Recruiting Command, ATTN. US ARMY COMMAND AND GENERAL STAFF COLLEGE CGSOC Common Core F Managing Army Change F Force Management Discussion Paper Purpose This assessment measures your understanding of the ideas and concepts presented in the F lessons.
The Road to Abu Ghraib Introduction I. A Policy to Evade International Law.. Circumventing the Geneva Conventions.
MEMORANDUM From: Midshipman 1/C Brian Benotz To: Battalion Via: Adjutant pages you need to write the subject again in all capital letters and then skip a line before continuing the memorandum.
might send a memo to your platoon commander and send a copy to the other squad leader to keep him/her informed.
This will probably be used . This is an example of a Sample Initial Counseling for a First Sergeant Memorandum.
It can be used as an example of an Initial Counseling for a First Sergeant Memo if you ever need to write one.