Steven Graham, Karen R.
Good readers use what they know about language and the world to interact with what they are reading. This helps them directed writing article example grammar meaning from the words on the page.
Classroom activities that encourage interaction with texts, like directed activities related to texts DARTsimprove students' reading comprehension. What are directed activities related to texts DARTs? What are the advantages of using DARTs?
How can you develop your own DART? DARTs are activities which get students to interact with texts. Their aim is to improve students' reading comprehension and to make them critical readers.
They can be done by individual students or in groups. What type of activities can you use in DARTs? DARTs can be divided into two groups: Text completion Fill in missing words, phrases or sentences. Sequencing Arrange jumbled segments of text in a logical or time sequence. Grouping Group segments of text according to categories.
Table completion Fill in the cells of a table that has row and column headings, or provide row and column headings where cells have already been filled in.
Diagram completion Complete an unfinished diagram or label a finished diagram. Prediction activities Write the next step or stage of a text, or end the text. Text marking Find and underline parts of the text that have a particular meaning or contain particular information.
Text segmenting and labelling Break the text into meaningful chunks and label each chunk. Table construction Draw a table. Use the information in the text to decide on row and column headings and to fill in the cells.
Diagram construction Construct a diagram that explains the meaning of the text. For example, draw a flow chart for a text that explains a process, or a branch diagram for a text that describes how something is classified.
Questioning Answer the teacher's questions or develop questions about the text. You can base a DART on traditional language texts like poems and extracts from short stories, novels and plays. You can also base them on extracts from magazines, newspapers, pamphlets etc, and passages from history, geography, science etc textbooks.
When students interact with texts, their reading comprehension improves.
They also become more aware of how texts are constructed. This makes them more critical of texts. They begin to ask questions about the information that has been included in, and excluded from, the text.
And about the words and sentence constructions that the writer chose. As students' understanding of how text is constructed improves, so too does their own writing. Research has shown that interacting with texts also improves students' cognitive development.
You don't need fancy equipment and resources to use DARTs. You can use textbooks from various subjects.
Therefore, DARTs can be used in under-resourced schools. DARTs can make your students' textbooks more interesting. If you teach English in a context where English is the medium of instruction but it is not the students' first language, using DARTs based on passages from the students' textbooks will help prepare them for the texts they will encounter in other subjects.
It will also help prepare them for the types of tasks they will encounter in other subjects.Learn more with these examples and observations. Grammar in English Definition and Examples. Search the site GO. The Role of Grammar in the Teaching of Writing language studies were no longer directed merely toward correcting grammar." (Ferdinand de Saussure).
Oct 12, · For example, The Title of This Article. This entry was posted in Examinations & Tests and tagged article, directed writing, english, paper 1, spm, spm english paper 1. Bookmark the permalink.
1 Comment Post navigation ← Previous Next → One thought on “ Directed Writing – Article ” PH says: April 8, at am. The Editor's Blog is a participant in the Amazon Services LLC Associates Program, an affiliate advertising program designed to provide a means for sites to earn advertising fees by .
Literature: Literature, a body of written works. The name has traditionally been applied to those imaginative works of poetry and prose distinguished by the intentions of their authors and the perceived aesthetic excellence of their execution. It may be classified according to a variety of systems, including language and genre.
Essays - largest database of quality sample essays and research papers on Example Of Directed Writing Essay. Student writing can be evaluated on five product factors: fluency, content, conventions, syntax, and vocabulary.
Writing samples also should be assessed across a variety of purposes for writing to give a complete picture of a student's writing performance across different text structures and genres.