Ethnic Nationalism and Civic Nationalism The discrimination between civic nationalism and ethnic nationalism is common in writings on nationalism and nations, whether it be as the civic-ethnic division, the political-cultural, or the Western-Eastern division.
A Comparison of L1 and L2 Reading: Cultural Differences and Schema Meena Singhal http: Intriguing questions involve whether there are two parallel cognitive processes at work, or whether there are processing strategies that accommodate both first and second languages.
This paper will examine how reading in the L1 is different from and similar to reading in the L2. More specifically, factors of cultural differences: Based on such a discussion, a profile of a biliterate reader is provided. Introduction The ability to read is acknowledged to be the most stable and durable of the second language modalities Bernhardt, In other words, learners may use their productive skills, yet still be able to comprehend texts with some degree of proficiency.
Reading, whether in a first or second language context, involves the reader, the text, and the interaction between the reader and text Rumelhart, Although reading in the L1 shares numerous important basic elements with reading in a second or foreign language, the processes also differ greatly.
Despite these interests, second language research on reading, is frequently dismissed as being marginal and derivative from first language reading. Reading in a second language, for example, was often viewed as merely a slower version of doing the same task in the native language.
While it is true that the L1 and L2 reading process have similarities, it is also important to recognize that many factors come into play, which in turn make second language reading a phenomenon unto itself.
Despite the similarities between reading in an L1 and reading in an L2, a number of complex variables make the process of L1 different from L2. Because the reading process is essentially "unobservable" teachers need to make significant efforts in the classroom to understand their students' reading behaviors and be able to help students understand those behaviors as well.
It is therefore important that teachers know as much as possible about the cultural, linguistic, and educational backgrounds of their readers since many of these factors that influence reading in an L2 context.
While the research in this domain encompasses a great deal of literature which cannot possibly be covered in its entirety here, it is hoped that this discussion will nonetheless provide readers with an overview in this area.
Types of Schema Before proceeding any further, the notion of schema must be defined. Schemas, or schema as they are sometimes known, have been described as "cognitive constructs which allow for the organization of information in long-term memory Widdowson, Cook states, "the mind, stimulated by key words or phrases in the text or by the context, activates a knowledge schema" Cook,p.
This covers the knowledge of the world, from everyday knowledge to very specialized knowledge, knowledge of language structures, and knowledge of texts and forms they take in terms of genre, and organization.
In addition to allowing us to organize information and knowledge economically, schemas also allow us to predict the continuation of both spoken and written discourse. The first part of a text activates a schema, that is, calls up a schema which is either confirmed or disconfirmed by what follows.
Research on the theory of schema has had a great impact on understanding reading. Researchers have identified several types of schemata. Formal schema, often known as textual schema, refers to the organizational forms and rhetorical structures of written texts.
Schooling and culture play the largest role in providing one with a knowledge base of formal schemata.2.
Cultural Differences Essay Ethics: Cultural Values - Words. Cultural Values and Business Ethics Gabriel A.
Martinez Saint Thomas University – Reaction Paper MAN Abstract The purpose of this paper will be to analyze the influence and importance of cultural values in . We ask you, humbly, to help us.
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Of the silent trilogy, Earth () is Dovzhenko’s most accessible film but, perhaps for these same reasons, most misunderstood. In a Brussels’ film jury would vote Earth as one of the great films of all time. Earth marks a threshold in Dovzhenko’s career emblematic of a turning point in the Ukrainian cultural and political avant-garde - the end of one period and transition to another.
Jul 02, · Cultural Differences Paper Cultural Differences Introduction Many people throughout the world indentify themselves by their cultural background. It is common knowledge that there are many different cultures throughout the world.